Ladies and gentlemen, it’s time for another edition of Arte-Factual! Last time, we looked at the killer whale bottle from Tomb Raider: Anniversary and learnt a little about the Nasca, their beliefs, and their art.
This time we’ll be taking a close look at one of the many collectable items found in Tomb Raider 2013: the Kansu burial urn.
The “Kansu burial urn” bears a striking resemblance to a ceramic jar in the Asia Society’s collection, a Banshan type storage jar that dates back to China’s Neolithic Period and which was most likely discovered in Gansu Province (甘肃省) in north-west China. Banshan type pottery is named after Banshan, an archaeological site in Gansu’s Guanghe County (广河县), which was the major settlement of Yangshao culture between circa 2600 and 2300 BC. Yangshao culture is named after the village of Yangshao in Henan Province(河南省), where the first representative settlement of this Neolithic culture was discovered by the Swedish geologist and archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson in 1921.
Yangshao culture developed along the banks of the Yellow River, widely regarded as the “cradle of Chinese civilisation”, and flourished for a period of approximately 3,000 years. It was an agricultural economy based on the cultivation of millet (common and foxtail) and supplemented by animal husbandry, hunting, and fishing. It is perhaps prudent to point out at this stage that there is some debate as to whether the Banshan phase should be regarded as one of the later cultural phases of Yangshao culture or whether the last three cultural phases of Yangshao culture (Majiayao, Banshan and Machang) should be classified as a separate, but related, culture, Majiayao culture, due to the culture’s shift from the Yellow River basin in central China to the upper Yellow River regions of Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia in north-west China towards the end of the 4th millennium BC.
Due to various cultural similarities, Majiayao culture is commonly considered to either be a continuation or an offshoot of Yangshao culture and it’s thought that the shift towards north-western China may have been the result of population growth and the need for new farming land. Over 2,200 Majiayao sites have been identified in the past century, though only a small fraction of these have been excavated and studied by archaeologists so the relationship between the Yangshao and Majiayao cultures is not yet fully understood.
But let’s get back to the object in question. Banshan type ceramics were mass-produced, mostly buff coloured (that is, a pale yellowish-brown), ovoid or globular in shape with two small handles (or lugs) attached to the body, and painted with black and/or maroon slip, which were made from clays containing natural umbers and ochres.
Banshan vessels were created using the coil method whereby clay is rolled into cords, which are then stacked and joined together in order to build up the desired vessel shape, one coil layer at a time. The coil layers and joins would be smoothed and blended together with a paddle in order to strengthen the vessel’s walls and create a smooth outer surface which could be burnished and decorated. A step by step tutorial demonstrating the coil method can be found here.
Once the surface had been burnished, natural, abstract and/or geometric designs could be applied by brush. Banshan pottery was characterised by the use of curvilinear swirls encompassing geometric shapes but waves and net designs (such as the criss-cross pattern seen on the neck of the urn) were also quite widely used, perhaps symbolising the important role that China’s rivers and fishing played within Neolithic communities. The undecorated lower halves of Banshan vessels have led some archaeologists to draw parallels between Banshan and Greek Proto-Geometric pottery but the reason for leaving the lower halves undecorated remains unknown.
Banshan vessels were not simply used as grave goods; a large number of them have been excavated from the ruins of domestic dwellings, suggesting that they may have been used for storing food. Archaeologists have noted, however, that vessels intended for burial purposes were often of better quality and more intricately decorated than those used for storage. Urns similar to the one seen in Tomb Raider 2013 would have been buried along with the deceased, several other pots and/or urns, and a number of personal effects (e.g. spindle whorls for women and axes, chisels and other tools for men).
Coming back to the urn seen in the game, Lara correctly surmises that the urn is of Chinese origin and is thousands of years old. However, it’s extremely unlikely that a Neolithic culture, especially one that was largely confined to central and north-western China, would have been trading with or visiting Japan or, indeed, Yamatai. The first references to the Japanese archipelago in Chinese historical texts date back to the 1st century AD, nearly 3,000 years after the real-life jar had been made.
It’s certainly far more likely that the urn had been taken to Yamatai at some point after the 3rd century AD (which is when the first Chinese delegation visited this mysterious nation), perhaps intended as a gift to Queen Himiko. Perhaps it was part of the cargo on board of one of Kublai Khan’s lost ships. Or perhaps some other hapless adventurer-turned-grave robber had “acquired” the urn before finding him or herself stranded on the island. 😉
Sources & Further Reading:
- Asia Society: The Collection in Context: Early Chinese Ceramics (Asia Society)
- Banshan (Archaeology Wordsmith)
- Banshan (Wikipedia)
- Banshan Type Urn (1929,0613.1) (British Museum)
- Chinese Glazes: Their Origins, Chemistry, and Recreation by Nigel Wood, University of Pennsylvania Press (1999)
- Chinese Storage Jar Neolithic period, Gansu Yangshao culture, Banshan type, c. 3rd-2nd millenium BCE (The Amica Library)
- Himiko (Lara Croft Wiki)
- Himiko (Wikipedia)
- History of Sino-Japanese Relations (Wikipedia)
- Majiayao Culture (Chinese Porcelain Glossary)
- Majiayao Culture (Wikipedia)
- Neolithic Communities in Eastern Parts of Central Asia by An Zhimin, in History of Civilizations in Central Asia, Volume 1 edited by A.H. Dani and V.M. Masson, Motilal Banarsidass (1999)
- Pottery Production, Mortuary Practice, and Social Complexity in the Majiayao Culture, NW China (ca. 5300-4000 BP) by Ling-yu Hung, Washington University (Washington University Open Scholarship)
- The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age by Li Liu and Xingcan Chen, Cambridge University Press (2012)
- The TT Tsui collection of Chinese ceramics: Neolithic Period c.10000–1500 BC (National Gallery of Australia)
- Yangshao Culture (Wikipedia)